Upholstery For Bedding

Divan base

Divan bases are made in standard lengths and widths, i.e. 6 ft. 2 in. x 3 ft., 3 ft. 6 in., 4 ft. and 4 ft. 6 in. widths. Frames can be made from any kind of timber but are usually in a softwood. The normal dimensions for the sides and the ends are 5 in. X 1 in., and for the slates 3 1/2 in. to 4 in. x 1 in. It is assembled by butting the ends to the sides, gluing and nailing. Strengthening blocks are put in each corner and a wooden bracket against the centre slat and side. Seven to eight slats are needed for a 4 ft. 6 in. base, which are inserted on the base rails at regular intervals. Pieces are cut out of the main rail the width and depth of the slat and the slats are set in and nailed. Make sure the frame is square (using the term as applied to a right angle of 90 degrees), before starting on the slats. Corner legs are then added.

The slats are first covered by a material to stop the noise of the rungs hitting the timber when depressed. This is usually a piece of webbing, canvas or felt. If a shallow base is required then 5 in. springs will be high enough, but the average divan requires springs of 6 or 7 in. by a twelve gauge. A 3 ft. wide base will take four or five springs per slat and a 4 ft. 6 in. base six to seven springs on every slat. The springs are stapled in with four staples for each spring over the rung and through the covering on the timber. They should be spaced out evenly along the slat, once again remembering to keep the wire knots of the outside springs facing inwards. The springs are laced lengthways first, so the number of pieces of laid cord are cut off for this job. They should each be the length of the divan plus an allowance for knotting each spring and an extra foot over at each end. This is required for holding the centre rung and tying off. Anchor each piece of laid cord in a line centre to a long row. This is best done with a staple, leaving a foot of twine for finishing off. Commence lacing, tying off the springs as already explained, but starting directly on to the top rung of the first spring and not the centre rung as when doing a seat. The centre rung is caught with the end piece of laid cord and pulled towards the rail when the lacing is completed. Pull the cord taut after each row of lacing is done and secure with a staple. The lacing across the width is done in exactly the same way, not forgetting to cross the cord as it meets in the centre of the rungs. A piece of heavy-grade spring canvas, normally termed tarpaulin, is cut off 6 in. longer and wider than required to cover the springs. This is put over the springs allowing an overlap of 3 in. over the sides and ends. Tack every inch all round with five eighths tacks, through the single thickness. The overlap is required to make a thumb roll with wool or fibre. Starting in the middle of any side or end, lay some stuffing along the edge and fold the canvas over tightly forming a roll about 11 in. in diameter. Pull it well back to the edge and tack off every inch with five-eighths tacks. The aim is to get the whole length of the thumb roll as even as possible in thickness and without any lumpiness. The springs are then sewn to the canvas catching each rung three times. Because there is such a large laced area it is sometimes considered unnecessary to sew in the springs, and up to a point this is quite true. However, after use the canvas does stretch and lose some tautness and this does mean there is more play and therefore more friction from the moving canvas which results in wear over the top rungs of the springs, particularly where it catches the `wire knots' of the springs.

The twine `bridles' are then sewn in over the canvas top and the stuffing put under them, `teasing' it out evenly as each handful is put in. The centre of the divan base usually calls for a little extra stuffing just to give it an extra inch in height. When the stuffing is completed a hessian covering is put over and pulled tight and tacked against the sides of the ends and long rails. The `ticking' cover can now be cut off and prepared. Measure off a `tight' measure over the hessian and allow half an inch for seaming. Make up the required area of ticking on the bench (it will probably need a full width with two partwidths on either side of it) and also cut off the separate border lengths and piping lengths required. The cover is then machined up with a piped border and a double stitching up the corners where the borders are joined. Before leaving the machine make sure there are no gaps in the piping, for a lot of strain is put upon the cover. Incidentally, the border lengths are cut to the depth of the divan plus half an inch for seaming and an inch for turning under and tacking. Pull the ticking cover over the hessian and temporary-tack all round getting the piped edge of the ticking in line over the edge of the thumbroll. When satisfied tack off underneath. The divan is now ready for tufting. The tufting takes the place of holding ties on the scrim stuffing. Mark out the top of the cover for as many rows of `tufts' as required, which might be five rows of four, or three rows of four, interspaced by two staggered rows of three. When the cover has been marked, thread a long needle with fine high-quality grade twine arid start to put in the slip knots through the marked spots. The knots are the things that actually hold the tufts which can be made of wool, cotton, leather and even buttons. Insert the needle from the top (at this stage the divan is standing on trestles at each end, allowing free movement in locating the needle as it comes through from the top) and pull it from underneath until it is through the spring canvas and then push it back as close as possible to the entry point. Make a slip knot and pull not too tightly at this stage, and clip off the twine leaving an end of about 5 or 6 in. Repeat this procedure until all the marks have been covered before putting the tufts underneath the twine. When all the tufts are in, commence pulling the slip knots tight and knotting off with the end of twine left on for this purpose. Cut surplus twine as near the knot as possible and tuck under the tuft. The tightening of the tufts is started from the centre working outwards each way. This particular type of divan base is now completed except for the tacking-on of a black hessian on the underside which keeps out the dust and finishes off the job.

The box mattress is made very much the same way as a divan base. This is the mattress that fits over the old-type bed irons. It has a retaining rail that is set back about 2 in. from the side and end main rails, and fits in between the bed irons. It is not unusual to find these mattresses webbed instead of having wooden slats for the springing to rest upon, and also made with a spring edge along the sides or at least with a stitched border. Of course when this type of box mattress is used it serves as a complete unit that doesn't need a spring-interior mattress over the top, although a pillow-type wool overlay is very frequently used. This is a mattress without a border, therefore quite shallow but giving that extra softness that might be required. There are better-quality divan bases that are made with spring edges all round but more often with the two sides and the foot only. Wheel attachments or good-quality ball-bearing castors make it much easier to manipulate the bed for making-up or cleaning purposes.Sometimes the divan base is made in two parts and hinged to enable it to be folded in the centre. It can be space-saving and is easier for one person to move. Another popular adaptation, particularly with the single divan, is to put a blanket drawer in the base of the frame. This entails making a higher rail and using a shallower spring for the foundation.

Spring-interior mattress

As its name implies, this is a mattress in which the interior has springing of one kind or another. Various types of spring units are obtainable as described in the chapter on springing, such as the open-mesh type in which the small coil springs are joined by spring wire and the pocketed type where the springs are pocketed in calico casings and are clipped together. The first method has a hessian covering. The stuflings are varied from linters felt to all-hair. The last-named, of course, is always a first-quality job and in the highest price bracket. However, wool stuffing is greatly used and is a most satisfactory type of stuffing for a mattress of this type. The ticking case is made and will include handles, two on each side for lifting, and wire-mesh air vents in the borders. It should be remembered that a good-quality ticking is needed if a hair stuffing is to be used. A fullsize mattress, i.e. 6 ft. 2 in. x 4 ft. 6 in., will be cut 6 ft. 5 in. x 4 ft. 8 in. The extra material is taken up by seaming and tufting. The borders will run out at 64 in. to finish 6 in. in depth after piping. The case is stitched around completely on one panel but only along one long side of the other panel. This leaves the ticking open to enable the spring unit to be laid in after the stuffing has been bridled around it. The panel is then pulled over and the edges skewered together to hold them until the ends and side are sewn together. Mark out the tufting spots (if they already haven't been done) and tuft, using first quality twine. On a full-size mattress they are usually staggered in rows of four and three, looking across the width, and five with four lengthways. Put in all the tufts before tying off tightly, starting from the centre and working outwards. After the tufting is completed two rows of tying stitches are put right round the borders to retain the stuffing on the edge of the mattress and so keep the edge firm. This is done with a fine mattress twine and a long needle. After regulating the stuffing to the edge, start off about a third of the way down the border from the piped edge and make a slip knot. Don't bring the needle out on top of the ticking. Insert the needle again at almost the same point and return it about two inches farther along the border. Insert the needle again about a quarter-inch along the border and repeat until two rows have been done all round the borders. There is no twisting of the twine over the needle as in doing a blind or top stitch.

The manufacturing mattress-makers of course have machines to carry out many of these tasks and the above procedure applies to the smaller workshop. A great many spring-interior mattresses now have the borders reinforced and supported by quilting.

Latex foam-rubber mattresses are very popular and as processing costs become cheaper a greater volume is demanded. They are made in thicknesses of 4 and 6 in. and will last a lifetime. Among the many advantages they have, constant resilience is a most important one along with the obvious hygienic properties.

Not all people like a soft or springy mattress and there are still a great number of `hard mattresses' supplied. They are termed `hard' as opposed to spring mattresses, although a `stuffed' mattress might be a more accurate description. Undoubtedly the best in this group is the all-hair mattress, and also the most costly. Made of the finest black hair, it is filled about a third of the way from one end and then the corners filled out and the hair teased and evened out by hand. This is repeated until the whole mattress is stuffed and then the mouth is sewn up and marked ready for tufting. As with other mattresses, when the tufting is finished two rows of stitching are put around the borders. An all-hair mattress will last many years, is very comfortable and reputedly healthy to sleep upon. To complete the range there are many wool-stuffed mattresses which are comfortable and give excellent service for the average cost.

Upholstery Easy Chair

One of the most popular types of easy-chair amongst men has always been the long, deep-sprung easy-chair. Sometimes this had side pieces added which are known as `wings'. A chair that one could relax in, sprawl in and generally find comfort and ease. They can be seen in abundance in almost every club room and indeed came to be known and described as `club' chairs. These chairs were always a fully upholstered piece of furniture that entailed many hours working time, considerable stuffing amounts and a good yardage of covering material. Made with a `platform' type of seat and finished off with a feather cushion, they were in great demand. The chairs that did find their way into the clubs were invariably finished in cowhide covering and sometimes in goodquality leathercloth with the feather cushion in the same material or in a good-grade velour of matching colour.

However, the average housewife didn't take to it at all, and at best only looked with favour upon it because of her husband. The reason of course was obvious; it was too big and clumsy and took up far too much room. It certainly was heavy to move around when cleaning the room. The tastes of the housewife and her needs probably influence the furniture manufacturers as much as any other industry and there seems little doubt that the ladies approve very much the modern line that is so much admired in upholstery today. Easy to move because of its lightness in construction, it also presents the minimum of work and expense when covers need replacing, also a reduced yardage in the case of loose covers. All these improvements are achieved without any loss of comfort whatsoever, and the lifetime of the suite or chair is about the same.

Most of these improvements are brought about by smaller frame dimensions, mainly in height, and the adoption of modern hygienic stuffings like rubberized hair, foam rubber and the like. The foundations too have taken advantage of newer and more up-to-date methods of springing. In place of the coil spring there is now either cable springing or tensile webbing and of course the spring unit of all types.

The following chair incorporates one or other of these materials and methods and is an example of the general trend of easy chairs particularly in respect of the qualities of the `club' chair.

A simple hardwood frame to one's own dimensions, is wanted, and a set of modern legs either in wood or metal can be fixed very easily. These legs usually include some form of ball-bearing castor or metal `glide plate' for easy movement. These modern castors also protect the carpeting.

The seat and back will be sprung with tensile webbing. The back webbing is put on first and tacked, or rather nailed with fine but fairly large-headed nails, directly on to the frame, on the inside. With this rubber webbing a hem of course is not necessary but it is better to nail through some kind of tough material before the web. In this case, as it will not be seen, strips of ordinary webbing about 1 in. wide could be placed over the rubber webbing where the nails have to pierce. Some four or five webs each way, interlaced, will do the back. The sides or inside arms are next webbed, but with orthodox webbing. Four pieces of webbing are stretched vertically on the inside of the rails, placing the last web about 2 in. from the back rail. This will form the opening or `gap' through which the cover and flys will go. Cover now with a piece of spring canvas, tacking on the inside rails and again leaving the opening at the last web free. Two straight cuts here and the surplus canvas is taken through the gap and tucked behind the web temporarily. The edges of the long arm should now be rasped both inside and outside. On the inside arm a shallow layer of rubberized hair or foam rubber is tacked just reaching to the level of the arm-rest. On top of the arm-rest an inch-thick layer of rubber is laid extending from the back to the bottom of the facing. This can be kept in position by bands of adhesive tape or again tacking to the framework. Cover the inside arm and arm-rest with calico, tacking to the inside bottom rail and on the outside of the arm-rest rail. Both arms should be brought to this stage before returning to the back. The back is designed to have a preformed foam-rubber stuffing. This will be shaped as the back frame but with the front area slightly bigger overall, which will mean the outside line is slightly proud of the back rail dimensions. The thickness of this preformed rubber back can be from 2 to 3 in. and is enclosed in a calico casing to which a tape has been sewn into the seams. This tape, which is on the smaller panel of the casing, is used to attach the foam rubber to the frame by tacking it on to the outside of the back rails all round.

The seat edge is a little wider than on the majority of chairs as far as the frame goes, and this is also covered with a layer of foam rubber with a piece of calico put over, thus forming a `platform' edge to match the subsequent foam cushion.

The cutting and preparing of the cover material is now done. The inside back is cut to the shape of the front panel of foam rubber, and piped on to it is a border extending from one arm-rest, around the top, to the next arm-rest. The piping of this back panel, however, starts from the corner of the seat, curves around the shape of the armrest, around the top border to continue and end at the opposite corner of the seat. Where the piping commences to curve around the arms a `fly' consisting of half material,half canvas is sewn. This pulls out of sight into the tuckaway adjoining arm and back, and goes through the `gap' to be tacked against the face of the main back rail. The inside arms, the long arm-rests and facings, and the outside arms are made in one, jacket style. The inside arm panel is cut to go from the top arm rail to the tacking rail only, where it is turned and tacked either on the inside face of the rail or out of sight underneath. The cushion panels are cut along with the borders and also a piece for the front border, which should match in line with the cushion, which in turn has been matched with the back panel. To keep a desired softness to the arm line, it will be better to make up the arm jackets without piping them but just stitching the seams twice for added strength. Before machining these pieces it is necessary to position them on the arm and to notch them here and there so that they can be matched in place on the machine.

The piece of cover for the front edge and border is now put on. This can be back-tacked along the edge of the front rail, covering the nailed ends of the rubber webbings of the seat. Bring over the cover and tack under the front rail. The sides on top of the edge are turned under but those on the face are allowed to extend on to the facing and are tacked. The prepared inside back can now be put on over a layer of wadding. This is set in position with one or two tacks holding it until the right position is attained. The first consideration is to see that the piped edging lies over the line of the foam-rubber unit. When this is accomplished, tack the base of the cover to the bottom rail, either underneath or on the face of the tacking rail. Next take the flys through the gap and tack off against the face of the main back rail, making sure there are no rucks, and if necessary stuffing out with wadding any hollow spots around the curved piping. The top border will require building up with a layer or two of wadding before pulling taut and tacking off. Now the outside arm can have a piece of canvas tacked over the area between the top rail and the tacking rail. This will act as a strengthening lining for the outside arm cover. Cover with wadding the whole area and pull on the jacketed cover. Set in position with the seams along the arm line and stretch from the back of the arm to the base of the facing or top arm. When satisfied with the fitting, turn in the edge of the inside panel and tack along the face of the tacking rail. This rail is almost on the same level as the front rail so the finished edge of this panel will rest and meet the turnedin side edge of the front border. At this point also you will have to turn in the raw edge of the top arm and temporary-tack it for the last few inches to the bottom rail. Later it is slip-stitched. Next go to the back, make two straight cuts, take the cover through the gap and tack off on top of the back fly. Finish the adjusting of the rest of the cover by tacking off under the side rail and on the outside of the back rail. The outside back cover is temporarily tacked on and later slip-stitched, whilst the cushion has its cover pulled on and the mouth sewn up. Remember to plug out the corners of the cushion if necessary with cotton wool to maintain the sharp clean lines of the chair. The bottom will need no black hessian, for the rubber webbings like the back webs are tacked on top of their respective rails.

It is much neater to turn in the edges of the material that has been taken under the base rail to be tacked. This is a chair well within the range even of the amateur and one that will give pleasure and a great amount of comfortable relaxation.

There are many Places where foam rubber can be bought at reasonable prices, especially off-cuts, end of range shapes, etc. If the cost of ordering specially shaped

pieces seems too much one can, with a little patience (and the upholsterer has a lot of this), a 3 in. roll of adhesive tape and liquid latex rubber, make up almost any shape required.

Divan base

Divan bases are made in standard lengths and widths, i.e. 6 ft. 2 in. x 3 ft., 3 ft. 6 in., 4 ft. and 4 ft. 6 in. widths. Frames can be made from any kind of timber but are usually in a softwood. The normal dimensions for the sides and the ends are 5 in. X 1 in., and for the slates 3 1/2 in. to 4 in. x 1 in. It is assembled by butting the ends to the sides, gluing and nailing. Strengthening blocks are put in each corner and a wooden bracket against the centre slat and side. Seven to eight slats are needed for a 4 ft. 6 in. base, which are inserted on the base rails at regular intervals. Pieces are cut out of the main rail the width and depth of the slat and the slats are set in and nailed. Make sure the frame is square (using the term as applied to a right angle of 90 degrees), before starting on the slats. Corner legs are then added.

The slats are first covered by a material to stop the noise of the rungs hitting the timber when depressed. This is usually a piece of webbing, canvas or felt. If a shallow base is required then 5 in. springs will be high enough, but the average divan requires springs of 6 or 7 in. by a twelve gauge. A 3 ft. wide base will take four or five springs per slat and a 4 ft. 6 in. base six to seven springs on every slat. The springs are stapled in with four staples for each spring over the rung and through the covering on the timber. They should be spaced out evenly along the slat, once again remembering to keep the wire knots of the outside springs facing inwards. The springs are laced lengthways first, so the number of pieces of laid cord are cut off for this job. They should each be the length of the divan plus an allowance for knotting each spring and an extra foot over at each end. This is required for holding the centre rung and tying off. Anchor each piece of laid cord in a line centre to a long row. This is best done with a staple, leaving a foot of twine for finishing off. Commence lacing, tying off the springs as already explained, but starting directly on to the top rung of the first spring and not the centre rung as when doing a seat. The centre rung is caught with the end piece of laid cord and pulled towards the rail when the lacing is completed. Pull the cord taut after each row of lacing is done and secure with a staple. The lacing across the width is done in exactly the same way, not forgetting to cross the cord as it meets in the centre of the rungs. A piece of heavy-grade spring canvas, normally termed tarpaulin, is cut off 6 in. longer and wider than required to cover the springs. This is put over the springs allowing an overlap of 3 in. over the sides and ends. Tack every inch all round with five eighths tacks, through the single thickness. The overlap is required to make a thumb roll with wool or fibre. Starting in the middle of any side or end, lay some stuffing along the edge and fold the canvas over tightly forming a roll about 11 in. in diameter. Pull it well back to the edge and tack off every inch with five-eighths tacks. The aim is to get the whole length of the thumb roll as even as possible in thickness and without any lumpiness. The springs are then sewn to the canvas catching each rung three times. Because there is such a large laced area it is sometimes considered unnecessary to sew in the springs, and up to a point this is quite true. However, after use the canvas does stretch and lose some tautness and this does mean there is more play and therefore more friction from the moving canvas which results in wear over the top rungs of the springs, particularly where it catches the `wire knots' of the springs.

The twine `bridles' are then sewn in over the canvas top and the stuffing put under them, `teasing' it out evenly as each handful is put in. The centre of the divan base usually calls for a little extra stuffing just to give it an extra inch in height. When the stuffing is completed a hessian covering is put over and pulled tight and tacked against the sides of the ends and long rails. The `ticking' cover can now be cut off and prepared. Measure off a `tight' measure over the hessian and allow half an inch for seaming. Make up the required area of ticking on the bench (it will probably need a full width with two partwidths on either side of it) and also cut off the separate border lengths and piping lengths required. The cover is then machined up with a piped border and a double stitching up the corners where the borders are joined. Before leaving the machine make sure there are no gaps in the piping, for a lot of strain is put upon the cover. Incidentally, the border lengths are cut to the depth of the divan plus half an inch for seaming and an inch for turning under and tacking. Pull the ticking cover over the hessian and temporary-tack all round getting the piped edge of the ticking in line over the edge of the thumbroll. When satisfied tack off underneath. The divan is now ready for tufting. The tufting takes the place of holding ties on the scrim stuffing. Mark out the top of the cover for as many rows of `tufts' as required, which might be five rows of four, or three rows of four, interspaced by two staggered rows of three. When the cover has been marked, thread a long needle with fine high-quality grade twine arid start to put in the slip knots through the marked spots. The knots are the things that actually hold the tufts which can be made of wool, cotton, leather and even buttons. Insert the needle from the top (at this stage the divan is standing on trestles at each end, allowing free movement in locating the needle as it comes through from the top) and pull it from underneath until it is through the spring canvas and then push it back as close as possible to the entry point. Make a slip knot and pull not too tightly at this stage, and clip off the twine leaving an end of about 5 or 6 in. Repeat this procedure until all the marks have been covered before putting the tufts underneath the twine. When all the tufts are in, commence pulling the slip knots tight and knotting off with the end of twine left on for this purpose. Cut surplus twine as near the knot as possible and tuck under the tuft. The tightening of the tufts is started from the centre working outwards each way. This particular type of divan base is now completed except for the tacking-on of a black hessian on the underside which keeps out the dust and finishes off the job.

The box mattress is made very much the same way as a divan base. This is the mattress that fits over the old-type bed irons. It has a retaining rail that is set back about 2 in. from the side and end main rails, and fits in between the bed irons. It is not unusual to find these mattresses webbed instead of having wooden slats for the springing to rest upon, and also made with a spring edge along the sides or at least with a stitched border. Of course when this type of box mattress is used it serves as a complete unit that doesn't need a spring-interior mattress over the top, although a pillow-type wool overlay is very frequently used. This is a mattress without a border, therefore quite shallow but giving that extra softness that might be required. There are better-quality divan bases that are made with spring edges all round but more often with the two sides and the foot only. Wheel attachments or good-quality ball-bearing castors make it much easier to manipulate the bed for making-up or cleaning purposes.Sometimes the divan base is made in two parts and hinged to enable it to be folded in the centre. It can be space-saving and is easier for one person to move. Another popular adaptation, particularly with the single divan, is to put a blanket drawer in the base of the frame. This entails making a higher rail and using a shallower spring for the foundation.

Spring-interior mattress

As its name implies, this is a mattress in which the interior has springing of one kind or another. Various types of spring units are obtainable as described in the chapter on springing, such as the open-mesh type in which the small coil springs are joined by spring wire and the pocketed type where the springs are pocketed in calico casings and are clipped together. The first method has a hessian covering. The stuflings are varied from linters felt to all-hair. The last-named, of course, is always a first-quality job and in the highest price bracket. However, wool stuffing is greatly used and is a most satisfactory type of stuffing for a mattress of this type. The ticking case is made and will include handles, two on each side for lifting, and wire-mesh air vents in the borders. It should be remembered that a good-quality ticking is needed if a hair stuffing is to be used. A fullsize mattress, i.e. 6 ft. 2 in. x 4 ft. 6 in., will be cut 6 ft. 5 in. x 4 ft. 8 in. The extra material is taken up by seaming and tufting. The borders will run out at 64 in. to finish 6 in. in depth after piping. The case is stitched around completely on one panel but only along one long side of the other panel. This leaves the ticking open to enable the spring unit to be laid in after the stuffing has been bridled around it. The panel is then pulled over and the edges skewered together to hold them until the ends and side are sewn together. Mark out the tufting spots (if they already haven't been done) and tuft, using first quality twine. On a full-size mattress they are usually staggered in rows of four and three, looking across the width, and five with four lengthways. Put in all the tufts before tying off tightly, starting from the centre and working outwards. After the tufting is completed two rows of tying stitches are put right round the borders to retain the stuffing on the edge of the mattress and so keep the edge firm. This is done with a fine mattress twine and a long needle. After regulating the stuffing to the edge, start off about a third of the way down the border from the piped edge and make a slip knot. Don't bring the needle out on top of the ticking. Insert the needle again at almost the same point and return it about two inches farther along the border. Insert the needle again about a quarter-inch along the border and repeat until two rows have been done all round the borders. There is no twisting of the twine over the needle as in doing a blind or top stitch.

The manufacturing mattress-makers of course have machines to carry out many of these tasks and the above procedure applies to the smaller workshop. A great many spring-interior mattresses now have the borders reinforced and supported by quilting.

Latex foam-rubber mattresses are very popular and as processing costs become cheaper a greater volume is demanded. They are made in thicknesses of 4 and 6 in. and will last a lifetime. Among the many advantages they have, constant resilience is a most important one along with the obvious hygienic properties.

Not all people like a soft or springy mattress and there are still a great number of `hard mattresses' supplied. They are termed `hard' as opposed to spring mattresses, although a `stuffed' mattress might be a more accurate description. Undoubtedly the best in this group is the all-hair mattress, and also the most costly. Made of the finest black hair, it is filled about a third of the way from one end and then the corners filled out and the hair teased and evened out by hand. This is repeated until the whole mattress is stuffed and then the mouth is sewn up and marked ready for tufting. As with other mattresses, when the tufting is finished two rows of stitching are put around the borders. An all-hair mattress will last many years, is very comfortable and reputedly healthy to sleep upon. To complete the range there are many wool-stuffed mattresses which are comfortable and give excellent service for the average cost.

Upholstery Easy Chair

One of the most popular types of easy-chair amongst men has always been the long, deep-sprung easy-chair. Sometimes this had side pieces added which are known as `wings'. A chair that one could relax in, sprawl in and generally find comfort and ease. They can be seen in abundance in almost every club room and indeed came to be known and described as `club' chairs. These chairs were always a fully upholstered piece of furniture that entailed many hours working time, considerable stuffing amounts and a good yardage of covering material. Made with a `platform' type of seat and finished off with a feather cushion, they were in great demand. The chairs that did find their way into the clubs were invariably finished in cowhide covering and sometimes in goodquality leathercloth with the feather cushion in the same material or in a good-grade velour of matching colour.

However, the average housewife didn't take to it at all, and at best only looked with favour upon it because of her husband. The reason of course was obvious; it was too big and clumsy and took up far too much room. It certainly was heavy to move around when cleaning the room. The tastes of the housewife and her needs probably influence the furniture manufacturers as much as any other industry and there seems little doubt that the ladies approve very much the modern line that is so much admired in upholstery today. Easy to move because of its lightness in construction, it also presents the minimum of work and expense when covers need replacing, also a reduced yardage in the case of loose covers. All these improvements are achieved without any loss of comfort whatsoever, and the lifetime of the suite or chair is about the same.

Most of these improvements are brought about by smaller frame dimensions, mainly in height, and the adoption of modern hygienic stuffings like rubberized hair, foam rubber and the like. The foundations too have taken advantage of newer and more up-to-date methods of springing. In place of the coil spring there is now either cable springing or tensile webbing and of course the spring unit of all types.

The following chair incorporates one or other of these materials and methods and is an example of the general trend of easy chairs particularly in respect of the qualities of the `club' chair.

A simple hardwood frame to one's own dimensions, is wanted, and a set of modern legs either in wood or metal can be fixed very easily. These legs usually include some form of ball-bearing castor or metal `glide plate' for easy movement. These modern castors also protect the carpeting.

The seat and back will be sprung with tensile webbing. The back webbing is put on first and tacked, or rather nailed with fine but fairly large-headed nails, directly on to the frame, on the inside. With this rubber webbing a hem of course is not necessary but it is better to nail through some kind of tough material before the web. In this case, as it will not be seen, strips of ordinary webbing about 1 in. wide could be placed over the rubber webbing where the nails have to pierce. Some four or five webs each way, interlaced, will do the back. The sides or inside arms are next webbed, but with orthodox webbing. Four pieces of webbing are stretched vertically on the inside of the rails, placing the last web about 2 in. from the back rail. This will form the opening or `gap' through which the cover and flys will go. Cover now with a piece of spring canvas, tacking on the inside rails and again leaving the opening at the last web free. Two straight cuts here and the surplus canvas is taken through the gap and tucked behind the web temporarily. The edges of the long arm should now be rasped both inside and outside. On the inside arm a shallow layer of rubberized hair or foam rubber is tacked just reaching to the level of the arm-rest. On top of the arm-rest an inch-thick layer of rubber is laid extending from the back to the bottom of the facing. This can be kept in position by bands of adhesive tape or again tacking to the framework. Cover the inside arm and arm-rest with calico, tacking to the inside bottom rail and on the outside of the arm-rest rail. Both arms should be brought to this stage before returning to the back. The back is designed to have a preformed foam-rubber stuffing. This will be shaped as the back frame but with the front area slightly bigger overall, which will mean the outside line is slightly proud of the back rail dimensions. The thickness of this preformed rubber back can be from 2 to 3 in. and is enclosed in a calico casing to which a tape has been sewn into the seams. This tape, which is on the smaller panel of the casing, is used to attach the foam rubber to the frame by tacking it on to the outside of the back rails all round.

The seat edge is a little wider than on the majority of chairs as far as the frame goes, and this is also covered with a layer of foam rubber with a piece of calico put over, thus forming a `platform' edge to match the subsequent foam cushion.

The cutting and preparing of the cover material is now done. The inside back is cut to the shape of the front panel of foam rubber, and piped on to it is a border extending from one arm-rest, around the top, to the next arm-rest. The piping of this back panel, however, starts from the corner of the seat, curves around the shape of the armrest, around the top border to continue and end at the opposite corner of the seat. Where the piping commences to curve around the arms a `fly' consisting of half material,half canvas is sewn. This pulls out of sight into the tuckaway adjoining arm and back, and goes through the `gap' to be tacked against the face of the main back rail. The inside arms, the long arm-rests and facings, and the outside arms are made in one, jacket style. The inside arm panel is cut to go from the top arm rail to the tacking rail only, where it is turned and tacked either on the inside face of the rail or out of sight underneath. The cushion panels are cut along with the borders and also a piece for the front border, which should match in line with the cushion, which in turn has been matched with the back panel. To keep a desired softness to the arm line, it will be better to make up the arm jackets without piping them but just stitching the seams twice for added strength. Before machining these pieces it is necessary to position them on the arm and to notch them here and there so that they can be matched in place on the machine.

The piece of cover for the front edge and border is now put on. This can be back-tacked along the edge of the front rail, covering the nailed ends of the rubber webbings of the seat. Bring over the cover and tack under the front rail. The sides on top of the edge are turned under but those on the face are allowed to extend on to the facing and are tacked. The prepared inside back can now be put on over a layer of wadding. This is set in position with one or two tacks holding it until the right position is attained. The first consideration is to see that the piped edging lies over the line of the foam-rubber unit. When this is accomplished, tack the base of the cover to the bottom rail, either underneath or on the face of the tacking rail. Next take the flys through the gap and tack off against the face of the main back rail, making sure there are no rucks, and if necessary stuffing out with wadding any hollow spots around the curved piping. The top border will require building up with a layer or two of wadding before pulling taut and tacking off. Now the outside arm can have a piece of canvas tacked over the area between the top rail and the tacking rail. This will act as a strengthening lining for the outside arm cover. Cover with wadding the whole area and pull on the jacketed cover. Set in position with the seams along the arm line and stretch from the back of the arm to the base of the facing or top arm. When satisfied with the fitting, turn in the edge of the inside panel and tack along the face of the tacking rail. This rail is almost on the same level as the front rail so the finished edge of this panel will rest and meet the turnedin side edge of the front border. At this point also you will have to turn in the raw edge of the top arm and temporary-tack it for the last few inches to the bottom rail. Later it is slip-stitched. Next go to the back, make two straight cuts, take the cover through the gap and tack off on top of the back fly. Finish the adjusting of the rest of the cover by tacking off under the side rail and on the outside of the back rail. The outside back cover is temporarily tacked on and later slip-stitched, whilst the cushion has its cover pulled on and the mouth sewn up. Remember to plug out the corners of the cushion if necessary with cotton wool to maintain the sharp clean lines of the chair. The bottom will need no black hessian, for the rubber webbings like the back webs are tacked on top of their respective rails.

It is much neater to turn in the edges of the material that has been taken under the base rail to be tacked. This is a chair well within the range even of the amateur and one that will give pleasure and a great amount of comfortable relaxation.

There are many Places where foam rubber can be bought at reasonable prices, especially off-cuts, end of range shapes, etc. If the cost of ordering specially shaped

pieces seems too much one can, with a little patience (and the upholsterer has a lot of this), a 3 in. roll of adhesive tape and liquid latex rubber, make up almost any shape required.